Essay on types of communication

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There is no doubt that motivation comes from within but communicator can also motivate people by good drafting of message, proper timing of communication, etc. To create understanding, communication should be relevant to the situation. It must always be remembered that communication is a means of motivating and not an end itself. For example, the Managing Director communicates with the departmental heads, say Finance Manager, finance manager communicates to deputy finance manager, the deputy finance manager with accounts officer and so on.

In simple words, in informal communication, there is no direct communication between the Managing Director and the accounts clerks. Informal communication flows from informal channels of communication which are not provided in the organisation structure. These channels develop among members because of personal contacts through working with each other.

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Communication flows downward from a superior to subordinate and upward from subordinate to a superior. It also flows between two or more persons operating at the same level of authority. Communicator-the sender, speaker, issuer or writer-who intends to convey or transmit a message.

Communicate the receiver for whom the communication is meant.

Types of Effective Communication Essay

He receives the information, order or message. Message-the subject matter of communication i. Communication Channel-the media by which the information and understanding are passed from the sender to the receiver. It serves as a link between the communicator and the communicate, i.

The characteristics of interpersonal communication:

Response or Feedback-the effect, reply or reaction, of the information transmitted, to the communicate i. The communicator first of all, formulates a clear idea about facts, opinions or information he wants to convey. The idea is then translated by him into words spoken or written , symbols or some other form of message which he expects the receiver to understand.

This process is known as encoding of the message. The communicator selects a suitable media for the transmission of the message, e. The message is conveyed with the help of the media selected. The message is then received by the communicate.

He tries to understand it by decoding the message. Finally, the effectiveness of communication is measured through feedback. If the communication brings in the desired changes in the actions or behaviour of the receiver, it is said to be a successful communication. In case, there is no change in the actions or behaviour, there is no communication, and if it leads to undesirable changes it is a case of miscommunication. The main purpose of communication is to effect change in someone i.

It enables us to understand others and to make ourselves understood. Without communication we cannot live or work together in an organised way. It is a flux that binds people together in an organisation. The basic purpose of communication is to facilitate and lubricate the organisation. It helps management in planning effectively and controlling efficiently. To make each employee interested in his respective job and in the work of the company as a whole. Communication of the conventional level is fairly impersonal; it just opens the door to further communication e.

Types Of Communication – Essay

It is merely an attempt to acknowledge the presence of another person and not a true attempt to communicate. Remarks like; How do you do? Conversation at this level also is fairly impersonal but it becomes fact and problem oriented.

After the initial communication people start discussing things, people, accidents, weather, policies etc. At the participative level, people talk about themselves and engage in self-disclosures. They express their own feelings, describe their own ideas. Though the communication in this stage shifts to the personal level, it is still expressed in a very safe way. This type of communication is common among friends, lovers and married people. It is rarely found in an organisation. In this level, people reveal themselves. They expose themselves intimately to one another in ways that involve risk.

This communication evolves from deeply felt mutual understanding and it is found in intimate relationships. From the above discussed steps for making effective communication, we can derive the essential characteristics of an effective communication system. To sum up, following principles or characteristics must be provided in an effective communication system:.

The American Management Association has given following commandments of good communication:. Formal communication is that which takes place through the formal channels of the organisation structure deliberately and consciously established by the management. It implies the flow of the information along the lines of authority formally established in the enterprise. Members of the enterprise are expected to communicate with one another strictly as per channels laid down in the structure.

For example, when the chief executive issues decisions and instructions to the subordinates, there is a formal communication which flows downward. In the same manner, formal communication flows upward when the subordinate reports to me superior. The main advantages of the formal communication are that it helps in the fixation of responsibility and maintaining of authority relationship in the organisation.

However, it has certain limitations also. Formal communication is, generally, time consuming, cumbersome and leads to a good deal of distortion. Communication arising out of all those channels of communication that fall outside formal channels is called grapevine. It is built around the social relationship of members of the organisation. Informal communication does not follow lines of authority as is the case of formal communication.

It arises due to the personal needs of the members of an organisation and exists in every organisation. Such communication is usually oral and may be conveyed even by simple glance, gesture, smile or silence.

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Informal communication is implicit, spontaneous multidimensional and varied. It operates with much greater speed than formal communication. It oftenly works in clusters of people, i. An organisation can make effective use of informal channel of communication to strengthen the formal channels of communication. It serves a very useful purpose in conveying certain information which cannot be transmitted through the official channels.

It satisfies the desires of the people, an opportunity to express fears, doubts and grievances. In spite of many advantages, informal communication has certain weaknesses; Informal communication consists of facts, half-truths, rumours and distorted information.

Verbal Vs Non-verbal Communication: Difference between them with examples & comparison chart

The informal channels of communication may carry completely inaccurate information which may harm rather than help an organisation. Moreover, it is not possible to fix the responsibility for its origin or flow of information. However, for the efficient working of any organisation both formal and informal communications are required. Communication between a superior and subordinate is known as vertical communication. Vertical communication may be downward vertical communication or upward vertical communication. Downward communication means communication which flows from a superior to a subordinate.

It follows the line of authority from the top to the bottom of the organisation hierarchy. Downward communication is a must in any organisation.

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Upward communication means the flow of information from the lower levels of the organisation to the higher levels of authority. It is passed from subordinate to superior as that from worker to foreman, from foreman to manager, from manager to general manager and from general manager to the chief executive or the board of directors. It includes opinions, ideas, suggestions, complaints, grievances, appeals, reports, etc. Upward communication is very important as it serves as the feedback on the effectiveness of downward communication.

Management is able to know how well its policies, plans and objectives are followed by those working at lower levels of the organisation. It keeps the management informed about the progress of the work and difficulties faced in performance. On the oasis of upward communication, the management revises its plans and policies and makes further planning. The transmission of information and understanding between people at the same level of organisation hierarchy is called the horizontal communication. This type of communication is also known as lateral or sideward or crosswise communication.

Usually, it pertains to inter departmental communication, i. Horizontal communication speeds up information and promotes mutual understanding.

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It enables the managers working at the same level to exchange information and co-ordinate their activities without referring all matters to the higher level of management. As shown in the diagram of Flow of Communication, supervisor A will often be in communication with supervisor B for co-ordination and integration of various activities.

Such communication is essential in all organisations. The horizontal communication is generally of an informal nature. Whenever a departmental head requires some information from another departmental head, he tends to contact him directly. However, this type of communication can be oral or written. The transfer of information between people who are neither in the same department nor on the same level of organisation hierarchy is called diagonal communication.

For example, when the Assistant Marketing Manager communicates with the accounts clerk directly, it is the case of diagonal communication. This type of communication increases the organisational efficiency by speeding up information and cutting across departmental barriers.